Un nuevo estilo de vida sostenible basado en la eficiencia energética y la optimización de materiales


Olmedo González, Elsa

This project consists of several parts, all of them aimed at achieving the birth of a new lifestyle for people in marginalized areas of Panama. The country is currently facing a problem in the field of social construction, in which the offer is not adequate to the real needs of the market. It is an offer of very low quality and with terrible structural conditions. This project aims to change this vision and offer low-middle income residents an adequate and sustainable option.
The work is fed in the first stay of real projects carried out in the same country or neighboring countries. It is very important that the project from the beginning makes sense and a high percentage of reality and feasibility. That is why real examples are analyzed on which some of the proposals that are developed below in the work are based, in addition to being able to have greater visibility on the final result that is intended to be achieved. Despite sustainability being a new topic, it is already imminently taking shape in construction and it is therefore necessary to take into account the ideas and projects that are being developed so that the project is aligned with the new construction strategies and materials.
When analyzing the alternatives, the project is broken down into two sections: materials – architecture and energy consumption. In the first place, the materials that are currently used are detailed, and for the consumption part, we have managed to contact several people who have provided us with their electricity bill, one of the most important objectives being to reduce and optimize this expense as much as possible.
Taking the context of both requirements, a study will be carried out in which several material alternatives are proposed, from which those that are most aligned with the vision of the project will be chosen. Regarding consumption, the average cost of electricity for a family is estimated thanks to the invoices provided, as well as the main electrical appliances that a prototype home in that area has. With all this, an energy analysis is carried out with the aim of calculating the number of photovoltaic panels necessary to satisfy the energy demand of a home, as well as the estimated total power to be able to carry out a real dimensioning of the photovoltaic installation.
As can be seen, the idea of ​​self-sustaining housing is not based solely on energy independence, but on a transversal change in the way of building. For this reason, the study of different sustainable and recyclable materials is proposed. This study is based on the promotion of local materials, consistency with the climatic zone (materials with a conductivity low thermal, which generate the greatest possible thermal insulation), low cost (cost optimization will be sought throughout the project in order to offer homes at the lowest possible price) and innovation. Consequently, the choice of materials will be adapted respecting the four aforementioned premises.
Once the materials have been selected, different construction alternatives are analyzed and the real-scale construction system is defined, in which innovative and efficient techniques will be implemented for the use of sunlight, ventilation and shadows. The model to be pursued is Carbon Neutral, and for this it is necessary to implement additional strategic techniques outside of the pure construction of the house. This will be a challenge both theoretically and practically.
After the theoretical presentation of the house, the constructive prototype of the house will be designed with the Revit software, seeking the optimal orientation for better ventilation and use of solar rays to optimize energy production.



Llaverías Baqués, Núria


IQS SE - Master’s Degree in Industrial Engineering